From YPPedia

Minerals are ingredients in a variety of products, including enamel, potions, and paint. They can be purchased at commodity markets from sellers or via the bid ticket system, or pillaged from merchant brigands. All minerals must be stored in the hold of a ship or shoppe.

Each mineral has a corresponding real life counterpart. The density of the real-life counterpart is the same as it is in-game, with the exception of thorianite, which is booched to be only one-hundredth of its real density [1].

For more information, click on the specific mineral.

Chalcocite Chalcocite
Cubanite Cubanite
Gold nuggets Gold nugget
Leushite Leushite
Lorandite Lorandite
Masuyite Masuyite
Papagoite Papagoite
Serandite Serandite
Sincosite Sincosite
Tellurium Tellurium
Thorianite Thorianite